Online communications are ever increasing, and we are constantly faced with the challenge of whether online information is credible or not. Being able to assess the credibility of others was once the work solely of intelligence agencies. In the current times of disinformation and misinformation, understanding what we are reading and to who we are paying attention to is essential for us to make considered, informed, and accurate decisions, and it has become everyone’s business. This paper employs a literature review to examine the empirical evidence across online credibility, trust, deception, and fraud detection in an effort to consolidate this information to understand adversary online credibility – how do we know with whom we are conversing is who they say they are? Based on this review, we propose a model that includes examining information as well as user and interaction characteristics to best inform an assessment of online credibility. Limitations and future opportunities are highlighted.

Note on the Author(s)

Jenny A. Wells, Australian Signals Directorate, Australia Dana S. LaFon, National Security Agency, U.S.A. Margaret Gratian, National Security Agency, U.S.A.