Author Information

Michaela Clark


Torture is defined in a variety of ways by many different sources. According to the World Medical Association’s (WMA) Declaration of Tokyo, torture is defined as, “the deliberate, systematic, or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more people acting alone or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason.” The Declaration of Tokyo was passed in 1975 and updated many times, most recently in 2006. This is a landmark document that has been used as a model for other medical statutes. The Declaration of Tokyo prohibits the involvement of medical personnel in any activities that would negatively affect the recipient. It denounces torture and the use of torture by doctors (Miles & Freedman, 2009).

Note on the Author

Michaela Clark is a sophomore majoring in Criminal Justice. Under the guidance of her mentor, Dr. Richard Wright, she participated in the Adrian-Tinsley Undergraduate Research program during the summer of 2009. Her research focused on the allegations of torture against the United States government brought forth by detainees captured in the War on Terror. She presented her research at the American Society of Criminology Conference in Philadelphia, PA in November 2009.

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