Hyunwook Lee

Document Type


Degree Comments

Submitted to the College of Graduate Studies of Bridgewater State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Athletic Training, 2018.

Degree Program

Athletic Training

Degree Type

Master of Science


Soccer is reputedly the most popular sport in the world with over 40 million registered players. Because soccer is a sport that is played mainly with the use of lower extremity, it is important to know about the fatigue in lower extremity and how muscle fatigue affects to the performance such as kicking, shooting, and passing. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on the kinematic changes in the lower extremity in soccer shooting. Six competitive collegiate male soccer players (n = 6) participated in this study (height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m; weight: 71.38 ± 9.55 kg; age: 21.50 ± 3.15 years old). Five joint reflective markers were placed on the right side of the participant at the (sagittal plane) greater tubercle of humerus, greater trochanter of femur, lateral epicondyle of the femur, medial malleolus, and base of fifth metatarsal. Each participant completed a fatigue protocol that was taken 90 seconds. Participants were asked to complete five shooting trials prior to the fatigue protocol as the baseline (Time 0) and then five more times after completion of each fatigue protocol (Time 1-5). A standard two-dimensional kinematic analysis was conducted with a high-speed video camera to capture the kinematic movement in the sagittal view at 120 Hz during soccer shooting performance. The statistical significance of the differences between pre and post fatigue protocol data was conducted with a one-way repeated measure ANOVA (α = 0.05) and followed by t-test with Bonferroni adjustment. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated significant decreases (p < 0.05) in ball velocity after time 2 (p = 0.38), time 4 (p = 0.40), and time 5 (p = 0.30). No significant difference was showed on the angular displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the lower extremities. The results of this study showed that fatigue caused ball’s shooting velocity to be significantly lower. Therefore, this study provides a crucial understanding about how exercise-induced fatigue can affect soccer shooting performance. Practitioners can utilize this information and prescribe proper strength and conditioning program to players to maximize their performance. Additionally, soccer coaches can use this information to determine the appropriate timing for player substitution during a game.


Tong-Ching Tom Wu (chair)

Suanne Mauer-Starks

Jennifer Mead