Santosh Nandal


In spite of the enshrining anti-poverty programs and objectives of the poverty eradication programs contained in India’s five year plans, women’s poverty in India, even after 58 years of independence, is glaring. This paper, based on a field survey, addresses the issues of economic constraints and the denial of women’s access to productive assets in the form of land ownership and human capital such as education, skill-training. The article contributes to the overall picture of female poverty at the national level. The author finds an exaggerated emphasis being placed on women laborers and inadequate economic opportunities among them as the major obstacle to reducing female poverty. Because of these constraints and discrimination, women enter into the unorganized sector, i.e. the agriculture sector. This paper examines how lack of skills, heavy physical work of different types, long hours of work with limited payment, lack of guarantee of minimum wages, lack of job security, lack of minimum facilities at the work place are the characteristics of the informal sector which contribute to women’s economic disempowerment.

Author Biography

Santosh Nandal, Ph.D., Department of Economics, Maharshi Dayanand University HUDA Rohtak, India