This study aims to determine the exploitation potential in internship practices experienced by female vocational students due to the weak bargaining position of students and the imbalance in the relationship between the school and the company. Theoretically, the phenomenon of exploitation experienced by female students who intern in the industrial sector can be associated with tactical capitalism that is intertwined with the education sector. This study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, where internship opportunities in the industrial sector for vocational students were still limited. However, this study can still show the potential for exploitation of female students even though the opportunity to take part in internships in the industrial sector is still not wide open for them. This research used mixed methods, where data is collected using quantitative methods through survey research, followed by in-depth qualitative methods. The research was conducted in four regencies in East Java, including Tuban, Mojokerto, Sidoarjo, and Ngawi. The sample consisted of 271 female students studying in vocational high schools and participating in internships in the business sectors. The results indicate that: (1) female vocational high school students feel threatened because they are forced to work in places that do not match their vocational skills; (2) the working hours during the internship are not consistent with the agreement between the school and the company because they tend to exceed the regular limit on working hours; (3) during the internships, they are often asked to work in the same company, but in a workplace that is not in line with what has been determined at the time of the employment agreement with the school; (4) during the internships, they are asked to work as employees of the company with the same working hours as permanent employees, but they do not receive a salary, and this can be considered as a form of economic exploitation which can also be one of the triggering factors for mental health disturbances for female students participating in internships.
Budirahayu, Tuti; Mas’udah, Siti; and Muzaqqi, Fahrul
"Potential Exploitation of Female Vocational High School Students in Internship Programs,"
Journal of International Women's Studies: Vol. 24:
8, Article 3.
Available at: https://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol24/iss8/3