This article presents key findings of basic research in the MENA region via a comparative perspective of active citizenship and gender equality. The article discusses the pre-existing inequality in the family and presents a significant issue in Bahrain, for there is a Sunni-Shi’ite division, which Jordan does not have. This is relevant to citizenship and gender equality for how family codes have an effect on women’s political participation in both countries. The political participation will be analysed via women constitutional rights. Whether this right is really exercised in Jordan and Bahrain remains arguable. Other important issues are the state machinery point of view with regards to gender equality and the state implication of the international agreement, CEDAW, which is concerned with women’s human rights and their legal equality.

Author Biography

Rania F. Al-Rabadi has completed Ph.D. in Gender Studies from the Free University of Berlin in 2012 and M.Sc. in State Management and Humanitarian Affairs from the University of Rome – La-Sapienza in 2007. She has been involved in research studies regarding women’s empowerment and legal status within FU Berlin and through the German Association for International Cooperation (GIZ). Dr. Al-Rabadi is also a lecturer at the Center for Women's Studies at the University of Jordan, and has a well-known internationally recognized Book published in 2012 within Gender Studies, Legal Reform in Women's Rights: A Comparative Study between Jordan and Bahrain Concerning Citizenship and Political Participation.

Anas N. Al-Rabadi is currently a Professor in the Faculty of Engineering at Philadelphia University and The University of Jordan. Prof. Al-Rabadi received his Ph.D. from the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department at Portland State University in 2002, received his M.Sc. from the ECE Department at Portland State University in 1998, and was a Research Faculty at the Office of Graduate Studies and Research (OGSR) at Portland State University. Currently, Prof. Anas N. Al-Rabadi is the author of more than 120 international scholarly articles in international books, book chapters, journals and conferences. In addition to several technical Electrical and Computer Engineering fields, his current research includes gender and teaching, and gender studies.