Female educational attainment in Iran has been increasing since the establishment of the Islamic Republic in Iran. This study investigated whether this female superiority is reflected or supported in Iranian textbooks. The study investigated how gender roles are represented in Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language) and AFL (Arabic as a Foreign Language) textbooks. “Criteria for Analysis of the Equality of Gender Representation” by Rifkin, was used for content analysis. These criteria are grouped into two main categories of ‘pictorial’ and ‘verbal’. The results showed that with no exception and in all criteria, males were represented significantly more than females. This indicates that males were the central point of most sentences, either as the subject of actions, or as the main figure in sentences and pictures. Significant differences were observed between AFL and EFL textbooks.
Baghdadi, Mitra and Rezaei, Ali
"Gender Representation in English and Arabic Foreign Language Textbooks in Iran: A Comparative Approach,"
Journal of International Women's Studies: Vol. 16:
3, Article 2.
Available at: https://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol16/iss3/2