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Over the course of nineteenth-century England, opiate use and the attitudes towards its use shifted and changed. Opium and the consumption of opiates stems back thousands of years and has been utilized in countless ways. Opium has always existed and has always played an effective role in society. Whether for enjoyment or pain relief, for pleasure or for pain, opiates remained a key player in society all over the world. The study of the history of drug use in nineteenth-century England is important because it adds a vital perspective into the changing attitudes towards opium. Many of the changes that happened physically to opium in the nineteenth century and the attitudes towards it have great effect on the meaning and reception of opium today. The nineteenth century had unregulated drug use at the onset of the century, and this changed over the course of the century. Medicinal changes, class categories, literature, art and popular culture all affected the shift of attitudes towards opium in nineteenth-century England.



Thesis Comittee

Dr. Sarah Wiggins, Thesis Advisor

Dr. Erin E. O’Connor, Committee Member

Dr. Paul Rubinson, Committee Member

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Original document was submitted as an Honors Program requirement. Copyright is held by the author.

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