The Graduate Review


Many studies have confirmed the disparity that black patients have an increased prevalence of severely impaired kidney function compared to whites. Without dialysis, or a kidney transplant, chronic kidney disease will progress to a fatal prognosis of end-stage kidney failure. The most common type of kidney cancer, renal cell carcinoma, occurs most often in adult males, age 50-70. Diabetes and hypertension are two of the most determinant factors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States, which most often develops following a chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis. The poor are most susceptible to disease due to high risk community environments and social disadvantages, including, lack of access to goods and services, minimal exposure to clean water and sanitation, insufficient nutrition, limited information about prevention and safety, and lack of access to adequate healthcare. The disparity gap between whites and blacks affected by CKD continues to grow. Consistent factors associated with increased renal cell cancer risk point to obesity, hypertension, and cigarette smoking. Enigmatic differences in incidence and mortality trends show the black population is at highest risk.

Note on the Author

Kathleen Cosgrove is pursuing her Master of Social Work at Bridgewater State University. Her research article was completed in the summer 2017 for a Medical Social Work class taught by Dr. Barbara Bond. Kathleen plans to work in the medical field as a hospital social worker. She will continue her writing endeavors.

Rights Statement

Articles published in The Graduate Review are the property of the individual contributors and may not be reprinted, reformatted, repurposed or duplicated, without the contributor’s consent.