Publication Date


Document Type

Book Chapter


Strong evidence exists to support the theory that individual differences can affect a person's risk for developing chronically violent behavior. These risks appear to interact with psychosocially learned factors, and may differ significantly from individual to individual. The mechanism by which these associated risk factors contribute to violence is less well established. Research has identified heritability, hormones, minimal brain dysfunction, and biased cognitive misperceptions as likely areas of dysfunction related to violence and aggression. Future research will focus on effective prevention efforts and a better understanding of how risk factors influence individuals' behaviors.

Original Citation

Englander, E.K. (2007). Violence. In G. Fink (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Stress (2nd ed., pp. 838-842). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012373947-6.00390-1