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Bullying is physical and or psychological abuse perpetuated by one powerful child upon another, with the intention to harm or dominate. Bullying and aggression in schools has reached epidemic proportions. Abusive bullying behaviors begin in elementary school, peak during middle school, and begin to subside in high school. Bullying behaviors are associated with catastrophic violence. Cyberbullying has emerged as one result of the increasingly online social life in which modern teens and children engage. Mediation may be inappropriate. The only safety mechanism that children will ultimately retain is the one between their ears.

Original Citation

Englander, E.K. (2012). Spinning our wheels: Improving our ability to respond to bullying and cyberbullying. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America,21(1), 43-55.