The rapid, global adoption of smartphones is undoubtedly affecting users’ quality of life. Existing research has published mixed findings on whether or not these devices are beneficial or detrimental to users’ well-being. Phone use shifts a user’s focus away from the present moment and towards the device at hand. Mindfulness, or “the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present,” has been shown to improve individual’s well-being through promoting self-awareness that allows for behavior regulation that is congruent with one’s basic needs (Brown & Ryan, 2003). The primary aim of this research was to create and empirically test a mindfulness-oriented intervention for nomophobia (the fear of being without one’s phone). The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between nomophobia, psychological well-being, and mindfulness using the Nomophobia Questionnaire, Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales, and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale. This research involved two different phases: Phase 1 was a randomized experiment and Phase 2 was a correlational study using the aforementioned measures. It was hypothesized that participants randomized to the mindfulness condition would report decreased nomophobia, increased psychological well-being, and increased mindfulness. It was also posited that post-intervention, those in the mindfulness condition would spend less screen time on their phones than those in the control condition. Additionally, it was expected that nomophobia would be negatively correlated with psychological well-being and mindfulness. Post-intervention, those in the mindfulness condition reported significantly less levels of nomophobia than those in the control condition, however there were no significant changes in psychological well-being, mindfulness, or objective levels of screen time. No significant relationships were found between nomophobia and overall psychological well-being or mindfulness. However, a significant negative relationship was found between nomophobia and autonomy, a subscale of well-being. Potential implications and future directions of this research are addressed.
Dr. Teresa King, Thesis Advisor
Dr. Joseph Schwab, Committee Member
Dr. John Calicchia, Committee Member
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Original document was submitted as an Honors Program requirement. Copyright is held by the author.
Weissinger, Gwendolynne. (2019). Mindful Phone Use. In BSU Honors Program Theses and Projects. Item 404. Available at: https://vc.bridgew.edu/honors_proj/404
Copyright © 2019 Gwendolynne Weissinger