The Graduate Review


"Jack" is a ninth-grade functional academics student with multiple disabilities. His oral intelligibility can be challenging for unfamiliar listeners, but his expressive vocabulary is actually very strong for a student his age. Jack most recently scored below the 10th percentile among same-aged peers on standardized fluency and pseudoword-decoding tests but scored above the top 90th percentile on tests of receptive vocabulary and listening comprehension. Considering this vast discrepancy between subskills, it can be hard to determine when his below-grade-level reading performance has been disrupted by intellectual challenges, by a lack of confidence, or by a lack of motivation, or perhaps a combination of these elements. Jack’s contrasts in ability indicated the possible effectiveness of retrospective miscue analysis (RMA) as an intervention for him. Using the Reading Miscue Inventory: From Evaluation to Instruction by Goodman, Watson, and Burke (2005) as a guide, the intervention in this study sought to improve Jack’s reading proficiency and overall self-concept as a reader, hypothesizing that his strengths in receptive vocabulary and listening comprehension would allow him to analyze and talk about his reading difficulties more fluently than someone without those strengths.

Note on the Author

Drew Cumming is a district-wide teacher of students with visual impairments (TVI). He provides individualized instruction to students across the K-12 curriculum and collaborates with teachers and parents to ensure that appropriate classroom supports are in place for students who are visually impaired. Drew received his Bachelor of Fine Arts in Writing, Literature, and Publishing from Emerson College in 2003; his Master of Education in Vision Studies from the University of Massachusetts in 2013; and his Certificate of Advanced Graduate Studies in Reading from Bridgewater State University in 2017.

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