Research Articles in Dreaming: A Review of the First 20 Years

Publication Date


Document Type



This article reviews the entire range of research articles in Dreaming over the past 20 years to explore how consistently they adhere to scientific standards. Articles are reviewed on the basis of how precise their description of the participant group was in terms of sample size, mean age, gender, and ethnicity; the duration of the study; the level of accuracy accepted; the sampling methodology; the number of quantitative tests; the researchers’ expressed awareness of limitations of the study; and whether their conclusions were presented as being global for all dreamers or more cautiously hedged. The ultimate aim of the study is to point out the strengths and weaknesses of the published articles, and to upgrade the research standards in the International Association for the Study of Dreams’ flagship publication.

Original Citation

Hoffman, C. (2013). Research Articles in Dreaming: A Review of the First 20 Years. Dreaming, 23(3), 216-231. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032905