Torture is defined in a variety of ways by many different sources. According to the World Medical Association’s (WMA) Declaration of Tokyo, torture is defined as, “the deliberate, systematic, or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more people acting alone or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason.” The Declaration of Tokyo was passed in 1975 and updated many times, most recently in 2006. This is a landmark document that has been used as a model for other medical statutes. The Declaration of Tokyo prohibits the involvement of medical personnel in any activities that would negatively affect the recipient. It denounces torture and the use of torture by doctors (Miles & Freedman, 2009).
The Torture of Alleged Terrorists Necessary for Public Safety or a Criminal Act?.
Undergraduate Review, 6, 47-54.
Available at: http://vc.bridgew.edu/undergrad_rev/vol6/iss1/11
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