Document Type

Archival Material

Publication Date

1930

Description

A reprint from the 93rd Annual Report of the Department of Education, this pamphlet contains a timeline of the history of education in Massachusetts, prepared for use in the Normal Schools. The timeline is divided into five periods:

  1. Colonial Education, 1630-1789: In this period the Massachusetts system of schools was founded, in rough outline – dame schools, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. In the latter part of the period local district schools became prominent and academies arose in the secondary field; also secular textbooks began to replace religious books.
  2. Development of State Education – Citizenship, 1789-1860: Upon the formation of the United States Government, education was taken up by the individual states – the civic purpose superseded the older religious aim. District schools and academies at first were dominant. Gradually graded town schools and public high schools developed. Definite steps were taken toward State direction of education at public expense, under Horace Mann's influence. Following him came a marked expansion in the scope of public education.
  3. Beginnings of Modern Education, 1860-1890: This period is marked by the development of modern types of institutions; by active reforms in methods of instruction; by the expansion of State control; by the growth of supervision; and by the differentiation due to introduction of new subjects.
  4. Education a Science, Teaching a Profession, 1890-1910: From this time on, the educational development of Massachusetts becomes in a measure a part of certain movements affecting the whole country, based on the scientific study of education – influence of Herbart and Froebel; the (“new Psychology,” child study and adolescence; university departments of education; influence of President Eliot and John Dewey. In Massachusetts – Nature Study and Manual Training movements; Vocational Education; Medical Inspection.
  5. Educational Extension, Testing Achievement, 1910-1930: This is a period of testing by scientific methods; of better organization of courses; of extension along vocational and cultural lines; of greater attention to the needs of individuals; of broader training of teachers; of centralization of administration.

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