Knee muscular response strategies differ by developmental level but not gender during jump landing
The purpose of this investigation was to determine differences between pre- and post-pubescent males and females in quadriceps (vastus medialis; VM) and hamstrings (medial hamstrings and biceps femoris; HAMS) muscular activation patterns via the root mean square of surface electromyography (SEMG) during self-initiated vertical jump landing. Fifty-eight subjects, divided into age and gender groupings, were compared on kinematic variables during pre-landing (100 msec preceeding initial ground contact), post-landing (100 msec following initial ground contact), and initial-contact-to-maximum-knee-flexion stages. Kinematic variables investigated were (1) SEMG values during each stage of the vertical-jump landing; (2) Co-contraction ratios (CCR), which represented the ratio of normalized hamstrings’ activity to normalized quadriceps’ activity; and, (3) knee angle at initial contact. Results indicated (1) no significant gender differences in variables measured; and, (2) significant developmental level differences. Post-pubescent subjects displayed greater HAMS acitivity and CCR values in the pre-landing stage relative to post-landing stages, indicating that post-pubescent subjects had a greater level of hamstrings co-contraction prior to landing than pre-pubescent subjects. Conversely, pre-pubescent subjects displayed greater post-landing and initial-contact-to-maximum-knee-flexion ratios, indicating a greater level of hamstrings’ co-contraction during post-landing stages than post-pubescent subjects. There were no significant differences in knee angle at initial contact. The greater level of hamstrings’ co-activation prior to landing by post-pubescent subjects indicated that they used a strategy of pre-tuning the hamstrings prior to landing (more CNS pre-activation) to control the ground reaction forces and anterior tibial displacement experienced by the knee during landing. On the other hand, pre-pubescent subjects controlled these forces by having a greater level of hamstrings’ co-activation during landing, which represents more of a reflexive activation in response to ground impact.
Croce, RV, Russell, PJ, Swartz, EE & Decoster, LC. (2004). Knee muscular response strategies differ by developmental level but not gender during jump landing. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 44(6), 339-348.
Virtual Commons Citation
Croce, Ronald V.; Russell, Pamela J.; Swartz, Erik E.; and Decoster, Laura C. (2004). Knee muscular response strategies differ by developmental level but not gender during jump landing. In Movement Arts, Health Promotion and Leisure Studies Faculty Publications. Paper 5.
Available at: http://vc.bridgew.edu/mahpls_fac/5