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Abstract

This article presents key findings and empirical work of basic research in Bahrain in regards to active citizenship and gender equality where it analyses the claimed liberal citizenship. The article focuses on pre-existing inequality in the family code and also discusses a significant issue where there is a Sunni-Shi’ite division in Bahrain. This is relevant to citizenship and gender equality for how family codes are debated in regards to women’s rights within the legislative authority. Furthermore, this article analyses the parliamentary organizational structure which attributes and influences the legislation process and decision-making particularly on gender-friendly policies, where the legal system can be used to encourage a liberal plan for all people and in particular women to have equal access to opportunities and resources.

Note on the Author

Rania F. Al-Rabadi has completed a Ph.D. in Gender Studies from the Free University of Berlin in 2012, and a M.Sc. in State Management and Humanitarian Affairs from the University of Rome – La-Sapienza in 2007. She has been involved in research regarding women’s empowerment and legal status within FU Berlin and through the German Association for International Cooperation (GIZ). Dr. Al-Rabadi is also a lecturer at the Center for Women's Studies at The University of Jordan, and has a well-known internationally recognized Book published in 2012 within Gender Studies, Legal Reform in Women's Rights: A Comparative Study between Jordan and Bahrain Concerning Citizenship and Political Participation.

Anas N. Al-Rabadi is currently a Professor in the Faculty of Engineering at Philadelphia University and The University of Jordan. Prof. Al-Rabadi received his Ph.D. from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Portland State University in 2002, received his M.Sc. from the ECE Department at Portland State University in 1998, and was a Research Faculty at the Office of Graduate Studies and Research (OGSR) at Portland State University. Currently, Prof. Anas N. Al-Rabadi is the author of more than 130 international scholarly articles in international books, book chapters, journals, U.S. patent, and conferences. In addition to several technical Electrical and Computer Engineering fields, his current research includes gender and teaching, and gender studies

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